VESTIGIAL - It is not always easy to stay balanced in life. For
the individual, company, country and even for the human race as a whole
there are forces and changes tugging us in various directions.
For well over 1,000 years (from Ptolemy, a Greek mathematician, of about
200 A.D.) scientists believed that the rest of the universe revolved around
the Earth. This belief did not come from the Bible, but from Greek
science. And though incorrect it had ripple effects through the rest
of educated Westerners. "The scientists must be right" in such matters,
of course. Over time even Christian priests tagged along believing
that the scientific consensus had settled the matter. But Copernicus
and then Galileo came along - and upset the conventional wisdom.
Galileo vs. the leaders of his day is not an example of "religion vs. science" but
rather is an example of scientists being wrong for about 1,200 years.
Their educated peers, later being the church-state leaders of the Middle
Ages, sided against the upstart Galileo for his standing against what was
"already long since known" and settled. But the ripple effects of educated
people long believing such an inaccurate scientific theory had subsequently
impacted European theology, philosophy, and many other disciplines.
Early in the 20th Century so-called "vestigial organs" were used to
help bolster belief in evolutionary theory during the "Scopes (Monkey)
Trial" of 1925. There were 180 organs in the human body that the
experts of the day said were not used. (And before you read the rest
of the story, keep in mind that many of today's experts claim that 98%
of human DNA is "junk DNA" left over from "evolution", only about 2% is
actually used, they claim.) In any event, the leftover "vestigial
organs" argument was a pivotal argument in the 1920's. If there were
some 180 unused organs, evolution must have placed them there - confirmation
of random chance over design. But evolutionists are mute on this
topic today. Over the decades they've slowly learned that every single
one of the 180 organs and glands has a distinct purpose!
Evolution has always been believed more due to the unacceptability of
the alternative than due to any scientific evidence supporting it.
However the belief by the consensus of scientists that there just must
be some evidence out there somewhere supporting evolutionary beliefs, out
there somewhere, somehow out there ... it has to be there (otherwise it
is logical to repent before our Creator - and that would be horrible, so
keep looking!) ... has subsequent ripple effects in theology, philosophy,
and many other disciplines. Maybe we should trust the scientists?
Surely they must be right when there is a disagreement between a temporary
scientific theory over the clear reading of what the Bible says on a matter?
Is the human race as a whole "balanced"? Are there some forces
that may be tugging us in unhealthy directions? Is it possible that
sometimes only the minority of scientists may be right on a matter?
(Like when Galileo disagreed with the majority of scientists of his day.)
Is it possible (theoretically speaking) that the Bible's record of our past may
be right? The loud voices of a majority ... are sometimes wrong. As a Divine
revelaton of our origins the Genesis record is the only "creation" account
still standing. And after evolution is eventually dismissed - Genesis
will continue to stand on its own merits and on the side of the scientific
evidence, as it does today. The scientific consensus may become wrong now and
again, but there is a particular record of our past and the universe around us
that, though without many details on some things (only 11 chapters to catalog
the first 1700 years of human history) stands as a true account nonetheless.
The debate over our origins is a wide ranging one. Many scientific and
religious evidences are brought forward and publications abound that support one
side or the other ... (or all 3 sides, if we include the "aliens" hypothesis).
Has "God" (or gods) given us a "Divine Revelation" that will eventually
prove to be true? Are "the scientists" always right? -Well, don't
ask me; I'm just a creationist ... not an "objective" evolutionist. :-)
(text by P.A.)
Job 12:7-8 "But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; and the fowls of the air, and they shall tell
thee: Or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee: and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee." ...
this scripture passage was a major factor in my becoming a zoologist ... Johannes Kepler, Isaac Newton,
Blaise Pascal, and James Irwin ... If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other ...
wolf behavior helps us understand the deeper meaning of these important teachings ... After an intense
struggle the beaten wolf demonstrates a strange and seemingly unwise behavior. He rolls over onto his
back and reveals his most vulnerable area...his throat ... resist our human nature to retaliate and escalate
the weather, electrical circuits, and the stock market. Chaos theory also applies to planetary orbits over
long time periods ... impact of numerous variables or environmental factors, far too many to evaluate or
include in mathematical models ... fluid flow may be smooth or laminar, in which case the velocities and
positions of particles are orderly and predictable ... turbulent or chaotic with the formation of vortices and
eddy currents ... No matter how good the weather data, an inherent limit to accurate prediction arises ...
flapping of a butterfly’s wings in the Amazon rain forest may set in motion a chain of events which later
results in a tornado in America’s Midwest. This is called the butterfly effect, more grandly known as the
law of unintended consequences ... book, Weather and the Bible
for decades many Darwinists claimed to be a useless remnant, a vestige left over from our supposed
human evolutionary past ... the yolk sac was yet another proof of the biogenic law ... yolk sac and
allantois, two embryonic membranes that are definitely functional in fish, amphibian, reptile and bird
embryos, are vestigial in placental mammals ... no reputable embryologist makes that claim today ... for
decades thought to be a useless structure, this sac has been proven to be a very important organ that
serves several critical functions in the developing embryo ... misconception was more or less based on
the fact that it does not contain any yolk. In the last decade, however, the human yolk sac is proving to
play an active and critical role during organogenesis ... stem cells that enter the bone marrow to produce
various kinds of blood cells
easy to find fault with a structure’s design when one doesn’t take the time to research it thoroughly ...
claim that the human retina (at the back of the eye) is wired backwards ... claimed that the eye of an
octopus is more logically wired ... vas deferens in the human male which takes a circuitous route around
the ureter, rather than following a more direct route from the testes ... knowledge of anatomy and
embryology ... seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands ... nutrient and gas exchange
prior to the formation of other organs (e.g., liver, bones, placenta ... Investigations of human ontogeny
human “tailbone,” or coccyx, usually consists of four bones, though it can vary in individuals from three
to five. After birth, the coccyx ossifies (changes from soft tissue to bony tissue) ... coccyx will fuse with the
sacrum, the fused vertebral bones ... serves to anchor important muscles, which attach to the front, back,
and tip of the coccyx ... embryonic development humans appear to have a “tail.” This occurs because the
vertebral column forms earlier than the hind limbs ... rare appearance of a “tail” on a newborn is the result
of the tissue not breaking down after the vertebral column has retracted ... name extensor coccygis was
given to the muscle ... dorsal sacrococcygeus, and for assuming that it is an evolutionary leftover
assumes that the sole purpose of the immune system is to seek and destroy pathogens. However, the
immune system was designed to detect and respond appropriately to numerous molecules, both foreign
and self-derived ... function of the digestive tract, ... beneficial microbes. Primarily consisting of bacteria,
these microbes that invade shortly after birth and inhabit the body are called microbiota ... potential
enteric pathogens ... apoptosis. The immune system plays a role. Programmed cell death can occur as
part of normal development. For example, the fingers and toes develop in a fetus by elimination of the
tissue between them via apoptosis. The macrophages ... lymphocytes ... variety of diseases
process in which some individuals have genetically-based traits that improve survival or reproduction
and … thus have more offspring surviving to reproductive age than other individuals. Because the
offspring also carry the genes for these traits, this process causes the genes for advantageous traits
to become more common ... relationship between the trait and the ability to survive and reproduce,
aka. differential reproduction ... natural selection is a major part of the theory of evolution ... by definition
natural selection assumes variation in traits exists (or it could not occur), it cannot explain the origin of a
trait ... Not all traits are genetic; epigenetic factors may play a role in some cases ... cannot account
for the molecules-to-man scenarios of evolutionists. Kurt Wise pointed out that the expectations of
natural selection are at odds with a number of observations in the world around us
biochemical evolution published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences: Problems
recur with hypotheses for the assembly of the earliest molecules with the properties commonly
associated with “life.” These include the unlikelihood that complex self-replicating molecules such as
RNA could form by chance encounters ... science teaches against a natural origin of life. It even alluded
to the concerns I expressed, in the previous issue of Creation Matters, about dilution of chemicals ...
abundance of partial or incomplete ribonucleotides and amino acids ... the implausibility of a natural
origin of life
sixth chapter of The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin discusses a number of problem issues ...
things of relatively little consequence, such as the tail of a giraffe, could be accounted for by his theory ...
ability of any one trait to make an impact would be diluted by competition from the others ... John Sanford,
in his book Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome ... each human being has over
100,000 different kinds of enzymes in his body. Each of these enzymes has its own control mechanism
that determines where, when, and how the enzyme is used ... a population is gradually being degraded
by slightly deleterious mutations ... “…because the creation itself also will be delivered from the
bondage of corruption …” (Romans 8:21 NKJ)
remarkable plant that grows in the extreme conditions of the deserts of Israel was the subject
of a BBC News article ... rheum palaestinum, a wild species of rhubarb ... Most desert plants
have small leaves but this species has rosettes of very large leaves covered in a waxy cuticle
and folded into deep channels ... The wax helps water flow over the leaves and the channels
guide the water to the plant’s roots ... our Maker knows how to design things extremely well ...
He can even make the desert bloom abundantly
the classical Darwinist account of evolution as primarily driven by natural selection is in trouble
on both conceptual and empirical grounds ... Induction over the history of science suggests
that the best theories we have today will prove more or less untrue ... "Would anyone
trust in the convictions of a monkey's mind, if there are any convictions in such a mind?"
Evolutionists are fond of claiming that the eye, if designed, is badly designed and
therefore it is actually strong evidence for Evolution and not Creation ... light enters the eye it
must first pass through several layers of cells in the retina called Müller cells ... unintelligent
design ... fundamental feature of the inverted retina as an optical system and ascribes a
new function to glial cells ... fibre-optic cables ... mediate image transfer through the
vertebrate retina with minimal distortion
Peregrine Falcons argue against accidental development ... two regions of the retina, known as
foveae, specialized for sharp vision. The deeper one, which is angled 40–45º laterally, is designed
for maximum visual acuity at long distances ... increase the aerodynamic drag coefficient on the falcon’s body by a factor of two or more ... fly in a logarithmic spiral toward prey ... U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service ... this behavior and physiology were in place from day one and did not evolve in stages
Motorized Ears Give Mammals Acoustic Acuity ... one of the fastest-acting molecular motors known, prestin works by stiffening the rod-shaped cell body with its cilia ... St. Jude Children’s Research
Hospital bred mice with mutated prestin that extends the cilia instead of pulling them in ... team of
Chinese and American scientists have pulled up fragments of deep-sea vents and analyzed their
contents, reported Science Daily ... most primitive life forms on Earth ... geological and geobiological
research with implications for the origin and evolution ... cosmologists are trying to avoid a void.
Since astronomers at the University of Minnesota announced a gaping hole in a distant part of the
universe, representing a region of space devoid of matter ... Analogical reasoning was thought to
be at the core of human innovation ... Caltech team using the Keck telescopes on Hawaii
Sea Monster Fossils Found in Arctic ... Plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs lived in the age of dinosaurs ...
another reason DNA is the ideal molecule for carrying genetic information ... bonding genetic code
or compacting into chromosomes ... DNA’s simple and elegant structure – the “twisted ladder,”
with sugar-phosphate chains making up the “rails,” and with oxygen- and nitrogen-containing chemical
the “rungs” ... Anthropologists stress continuity and change over time, whereas Christians focus on
radical discontinuities, such as the birth and second coming of Jesus, and the individual experience
of conversion ... analyze C.S. Lewis as an anthropological subject ... age of a supernova remnant has
dropped from 10,000 years to less than 2,000 years ... Chandra X-ray Observatory ... these findings
also mean that geneticists don’t understand nearly as much as they had previously thought
Creator Christ made, as you probably know, astounding claims ... Haven’t you read that at the beginning
the Creator made them male and female ... I do not take the Bible as a book of science, but I do believe
it is a book of truth ... Old Testament, and His disciples on that road began to connect with His
understanding ... give me even one example of an increase in genetic information ... love mathematics,
the language of science. I taught it for over 30 years ... the challenge was to produce examples of
genetic ‘information’ increasing in a biological system. But, what we get with this paper is a
demonstration that computer simulations can be programmed to illustrate a mechanism of increasing
USDA Research Service in Gainesville, Florida revealed an interesting interaction of beet armyworm
(BAW) herbivores and their host plants, resulting in the attraction of female wasp parasitoids who then
lay eggs in the caterpillars ... insect originated in Southeast Asia and was found in North America
around 1876 ... excessive insecticide usage can cause infestations of BAW ... oral secretions of the
larvae, which induces the damaged corn to release a blend of volatile terpenoids and indole which
then attracted wasps to the feeding herbivores ... indicating de novo synthesis of the compounds
a developing baby’s circulatory system is connected to its mother’s. By connections with the mother’s
circulation through the placenta, the growing baby’s organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need
for growth ... fetal circulatory system partially re-route oxygen-rich blood to tissues needing the most
oxygen. One such structure is the foramen ovale ... one-way valve, the septum primum ... Bypass
structures within the fetal circulatory system provide extra oxygen to the tissues that need it most.
Then, after birth, these structures mysteriously disappear. ... the handiwork of an intelligent Designer
Vhris McManus’ scholarly book Right Hand, Left Hand begins with the story of John Reid,
who died in London in 1835, at the age of 48 ... all of his organs were reversed, with the liver on
the left and stomach on the right ... condition known as situs inversus ... symmetrical on the outside,
we forget that they are certainly asymmetrical on the inside ... “And he shall set the sheep on his
right hand, but the goats on the left.” Matthew 25:33 ... count the incidence of left-handedness again
until 1871 in England where a figure of 4.25% was obtained ... complex interplay of biological and
sociological factors ... It is possible that this is an artifact of the division at Babel ... amino acids, without
which life on earth would not be possible, are chiral ... the proteins in our bodies are constructed entirely
from L-amino acids ... sugars, the opposite is true ... DNA and RNA ... how did asymmetry arise
in nature? How did a symmetrical “Big-Bang” lead to all of the asymmetry that we observe today?
fundamentalists from the physics and engineering departments have suggested
that teaspoons are designed, and that a change from spoon to fork would involve
additional design information ... design theory goes back a long way in history,
so might be conveniently discussed by theology departments
the scientific arguments for Creation and against the theory of evolution gain ever greater
acceptance with the general public, the high priests of Darwinism become increasingly
concerned ... creationism and Intelligent Design as an explanation of origins ... prejudice ...
Smithsonian Institute ... Grand Canyon ... worldwide flood in the days of Noah ...
Fundamental Christianity is also sweeping Africa and Latin America ... sceptic’s
guide to intelligent design ... irreducible complexity ... New Scientist
onto the stage amid rapturous applause ... theatrical flourish he takes off his cape and
shows his black top-hat to the audience ... white rabbit appear from the hat ... it is clear
that you can't get something from nothing no matter how many millions of
years you invoke. The theory of Evolution is just like a cheap conjuring trick
equids, modern horses are marvels of grace and beauty ... leg bones of a horse are subject to a
great deal of stress, particularly when the animal is galloping ... metacarpus is a small hole
(foramen) through which blood vessels enter the bone ... analysis by microscopic and microradiographic
techniques, the engineers have discovered that this bone is structured in such a manner as to displace the
stresses away from the hole. ... airplanes and spacecraft, like other vehicles, must have holes in their
structures permitting the passage of essential wiring, hydraulic and fuel lines ... computer modeling of
the natural bone’s structure, the researchers hope to create a biomimetric* approach to manufacturing
man-made materials ... usual mammalian mechanisms for cooling blood before it enters the brain are
not adequate for horses ... extreme thermoregulatory demands ... two guttural pouches
Science ... evolutionism ... missing link ... the Piltdown hoax ... Urey-Miller origin of life
in-vitro experiments ... the origin of life ... complex metabolic pathways ...
primitive life ... methane gas, CH4, and thick brine ... bromide to chloride ion ratio ...
encapsulated brine ... cradle of life ... biomolecules ... phosphate-phosphate link
The Bible encourages us to seek out God’s characteristics by studying His handiwork ...
God’s scientifically obvious attributes ... Purpose is another divine characteristic which can
be witnessed in science. God’s purpose, intent, plan, or design can be discerned by
questioning the animals ... Under scientific scrutiny, the winged creatures likewise tutor us
by enumerating their own evidences for design in nature ... little field mice (voles) prevent
reforestation of northern meadows in the United States and Canada ... by selectively
eliminating tree seedlings that would otherwise soon change the landscape back into forests ...
an amazing ecological feat ... Speak to the Earth and It Shall Teach Thee
book, The Meme Machine, by Susan Blackmore, Oxford University Press, New York,
1999. 264 pages ... cover of New Scientist, which featured an article on memetics ... the only
reason for our being allowed to think we exist is because, in creating our minds, strange
evolutionary replicators, called memes, craftily incorporated an illusion of self-consciousness
for the sole purpose of replicating and spreading themselves ... In this strange new world
of memes, humans are given little more dignity than mobile robots used by mind viruses as
hosts ... term “meme” was coined by the well-known atheist and evolutionist Richard Dawkins,
and made its debut in his book The Selfish Gene (Dawkins, 1976) ... cultural anthropology,
psychology, cognitive science and neuroscience ... Blackmore addresses such large issues — our
big brains, language, sex, altruism, religion, the concept of self ... Universal Darwinism
strain of yeast to growth in medium containing a low concentration of glucose ... the work that
Lenski is doing with E. coli ... adaptive mutations that have been detected are mostly loss of a
particular genetic function (hardly a mechanism driving evolution from “ameba to man”) ...
five-nucleotide difference between the two genes ... hybrid ... revealing the high “metabolic
cost” of such mutations ... natural selection, despite the grandiose claims of those such as Richard
Dawkins, has no ability to “create” or “make” anything ... Natural selection did not make the antibiotic
resistance ... there is no known scientific mechanism to get you “up” the mountain
Carl Sagan used evolutionary thinking to justify the slaughter of the unborn. According to him,
humans go through an evolutionary unfolding during development in the womb ... Six million is the
number linked with Hitler, but well over thirty million babies have been slaughtered in American
abortuaries since 1973! ... evolutionary thinking into Germany via Ernst Haeckel had an impact
on Germans, including Hitler. Ideas have consequences, and faulty “science” has fostered evil ...
Hitler was not pretending to be a biology teacher, but he did see himself as furthering (laudably, in
his mind) evolution’s supposedly relentless path of weeding out the weak and strengthening the fit ...
Mein Kampf ... many have tried to condemn Christianity because of misapplications by supposed adherents
book, The Human Body: An Intelligent Design ... book, Body by Design: The Anatomy and
Physiology of the Human Body ... Design in the Endocrine System ... neurotransmitters, hormones
allow regulation of continuing processes ... British physiologist Ernest Starling discovered hormones ...
stomach, the intestines, the lung, and the kidneys ... secretion of bicarbonate, controls bile secretion
from the liver, and neutralizes chyme ... chemical messengers that excited or catalyzed body reactions
ever since 1859 when Charles Darwin wrote his Origin of Species, there has been a growing desire
to move away from “In the Beginning God created,” (Genesis 1:1) ... validity of Darwinism is
Michael Behe, professor of biochemistry at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania ... basic level of life
there is “irreducible complexity” which can only speak of a designer ... some even felt that a living
cell was about as complicated as a ping-pong ball. Little did early scientists realize the biochemical
machinery at work in something alive. ... blood clotting and how it works ... coagulation cascade ...
immune system ... gradualistic account of the immune system is blocked by multiple interwoven
requirements ... Molecular evolution is not based on scientific authority ... Embracing intelligent design
Homologous anatomical structures: evidence of common descent or common design? ...
comparative anatomy ... Carolus von Linnaeus held that the Creator utilized various patterns,
plans, or (as he called them) “archetypes.” ... outline of classification ... Linnaeus developed ...
species can change or vary within fixed, created limits ... Dobzhansky ... Cuvier’s classification
according to archetypes ... Nobody has ever observed the sweeping changes which evolutionists
propose ... Cuvier’s antievolutionism was a scientific decision ... scientific creation ... biology
Living fossils abound ... the sea lilies or crinoids, discovered in the 1890’s to be living in deep
sea trenches. Then, the coelacanth Latimeria was discovered in 1938. Even subsequent
landings of this fish have received lots of media coverage. The mollusk Neopilina was first
identified in 1956; and among plants, dawn redwood trees were discovered in 1948. ...
early Cretaceous flower, Takhtajania perrieri, rediscovered living in Madagascar 85 years after
its original identification ... silverfish, cockroach, monkey puzzle tree, horsetails, Magnolia, lamprey,
tortoises, crocodiles, American opossum, and insect eating shrews ... Embarrassments to evolution